Internal pressure reaction force of axial expansion joints

Onaxial expansion joints without tie rods, the internal pressure reaction force acts axially on both sides of the connecting pipe system. The value of this force is depend on the effective bellows cross-sectional area of the expansion joint and the overpressure in the system. If not specified by the manufacturer, the effective bellows cross-sectional area can be calculated approximately with the middle bellows diameter of the largest wave. A calculation of the internal pressure reaction force is possible on our website „TOOLS„. Furthermore, forces must be taken into account which result from the spring rates of expansion joints.


American standard (Uniform Building Code – UBC). UBC 1997 contains statements relating to seismic design / seismic loads and wind loads.


The American standard for design data for buildings and other structures containing also statements for seismic design / seismic loads and wind loads. The standard is published by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE).


European Standard for the design of structures against wind loads and snow loads published in 2010.


European standard for the design of structures for earthquake resistance published in 2010.


The Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (Kerntechnische Ausschuss ‐ KTA) create safety rules for nuclear power plants.

Eurocode 3

The Euro code 3 (short EC3) is a series of European standards (EN) for the design of steel structures, consisting of 20 documents EN1993


European standard for Unfired pressure vessels. Part 3 (EN13445‐3) deals with design and calculation, Appendix C describes the method of analysis, basis for the calculation of thin‐walled shells by FEM analysis

Converting inches

Unit of length used in American codes. Pipe dimensions are often given in inches.

1 inch = 25,4 mm

Pipe stress analysis

Part of the pipe structural analysis. Proof of whether the permissible temperature-dependant and load-dependent stresses of the material in use are not exceeded. Piping is modelled as a beam model, and mounting parts are assigned stress intensification factors. Calculation regulations: EN13480-3, ASME B31.1, ASME B31.3, ISO14692, KTA…

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